Economic Botany Section
Coe, Felix G. , Parikh, Dimpi , Johnson, Caley .
Chemical and Biological Screening of Medicinal Plants of Eastern Nicaragua: Alkaloid Presence and Lethality of Plant Extracts on Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina Leach).
A total of 558 aqueous extracts derived from 31 species of vascular plants used by healers in eastern Nicaragua were assayed for alkaloids and toxicity. Species tested are distributed in 31 genera and 26 families. Out of 31 species tested for alkaloids with Dragendorff’s reagent 29 were positive. Toxicological analysis was conducted using the brine shrimp lethal assay (BSLA). Biological activity using BSLA was recorded as a lethal concentration (LC50) that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 hours of contact with the aqueous plant extract. The LC50 were < 2500 Âµg/ml for 4 (13%) species, 2500-5000 Âµg/ml for 7 (22%) species, 5001-7500 Âµg/ml for 12 (39%) species, 7501-10000 Âµg/ml for 4 (13%) species, and > 10000 Âµg/ml for 4 (13%) species. The most toxic species were Lygodium heterodoxum Kuntze (LC50 1434 Âµg/ml), Eugenia venezuelensis O. Berg (LC50 1586 Âµg/ml), Olyra latifolia L. (LC50 1916 Âµg/ml), and Vochysia ferruginea Mart. (LC50 1932 Âµg/ml). The bioactivity of these extracts may help to explain the widespread use these species as medicinals. The bioassay results indicate the possibility that some of the plant extracts may be toxic to humans or contain useful cytotoxic compounds not yet reported.
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1 - University of Connecticut, 85 Lawler Road, West Hartford, Connecticut, 06117-2697, USA
2 - University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269, USA
Brine shrimp toxicity
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Date: Wednesday, July 30th, 2008
Time: 8:30 AM