Developmental and Structural Section
Bobrov, Alexey , Romanov, Mikhail .
Morphogenetic classification of fruits of angiosperms.
Basing on the original carpological investigation of fruits morphology and pericarp anatomy in representatives of about 200 angiosperm families a new morphogenetic classification of fruits is proposed. Exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp are interpreted as histogenetic zones, so only homological structures were compared in the study. Two basal fruit types were recognized – winterina (originally indehisent fruit) and follicle (originally dehiscent fruit). Evolutionary transformation of apocarpous follicles brought to origin of apocarpous berries, apocarpous coryphoid fruits, nutlets and three types of drupe-like fruits – typical drupes (putamen consists of inner zone of mesocarp and endocarp), laurina (putamen consists of endocarp only) and drupaceous fruits of Diplopterys-type (putamen consists of inner zone of mesocarp). Next, typical drupes could be transformed into nutlets, laurinas – into apocarpous berries, and apocarpous coryphoid fruit - into syncarpous coryphoid fruit. Different types of coenocarpous follicles were the prototypes of four types of capsules differing by localization and development of sclerenchymatic tissue in pericarp: Catalpa-type (endocarp), Hamamelis-type (endocarp and inner zone of mesocarp), Camellia-type (inner zone of mesocarp), and Lilium-type (lacking sclerenchyma). Total parenchymatization of pericarp of any type of capsule brought to origin of coenocarpous berries, which could also derive from apocarpous berries or syncarpous coryphoid fruits. Three types of pyrenaria origing from corresponding types of capsules with the same localisation of sclerenchyma in pericarp: Butia-type – from capsule of Hamamelis-type, Sapindus-type – from Catalpa-type, and Latania-type – from Camellia-type. These pyrenaria could also be linked with corresponding apocarpous drupaceous fruits – drupes, laurinas and Diplopterys-type. Capsules of Lilium-type transformed in some groups of angiosperms into nuts of Physena-type with “coriaceous” pericarp texture. Both capsules of Butia- and Hamamelis-type, and pyrenaria of Sapindus- and Catalpa-type could be transformed into nuts of Corylus-type with totally sclerified pericarp. Parenchymatization of pericarp in all morphogenetic types of pyrenaria brings to origin of coenocarpous berries.
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1 - M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Geographical Faculty, Recent Deposits and Pleistocene Palaeogeography Laboratory, Vorobjevi Gori, Moscow, 119992, Russian Federation
2 - Main Botanical Garden nm. N. V. Tcitcin RAS, Department of Dendrology, Botanical st., 4, Moscow, 127276, Riussian Federation
Presentation Type: Oral Paper:Papers for Sections
Date: Tuesday, July 29th, 2008
Time: 8:45 AM